Category Archives: NetBSD

I’m not running it on a toaster, It’s on a Workpad instead! :P

12″ PowerBook G4 PT5 – Electronic Battle Weapon

Preparation for a trip started off a little earlier this christmas. I planned to take my PowerBook on the road with me to Hamburg for 33c3. Previous attempts to use this machine as my primary system on the road in the past had been thwarted by leaving too little time to build & prepare before departure.
The system has been dual booting NetBSD & Mac OS X Tiger for some time now, recently I’ve been doing almost daily upgrades to NetBSD-HEAD on the system using the generated iso images from NYFTP.
My plan was to get the machine installed with a current build FireFox on NetBSD & bring the existing installed packages up to date. I managed to update the existing packages without any problems but it didn’t look like FireFox was going to build successfully. The package as-is currently in pkgsrc does not build on NetBSD/macppc. I was pointed to a patch in pkg/48595 which was pending commit and required testing. It cleared up the initial issue I ran into but the build still failed (see previous link on updates about the failure), though it took a little longer to fail in the day. After several days of failed build attempts I made sure I had an up to date copy of TenFourFox installed on Tiger and settled for Dillo on NetBSD instead.

My usage of Dillo stayed somewhat basic during the trip, despite having the Mozilla certificate bundle installed, I could see any obvious way to point Dillo to it & have it use it. Hence, any site using SSL I visited generated a certificate warning. Perhaps the config should’ve been done in wget?

www/dillo pkgdepgraph

Alexander Nasonov created packages for Dillo & Links-gui targeted for running under a minimal chroot but I did not get around to trying them out. There are chrooted browser packages for other browsers in his pkgsrc github repo. The screenshot above shows the www/dillo package’s dependencies, generated using pkgtools/pkgdepgraph

Moving on, the AirPort Extreme card in the laptop is based on a Broadcom chipset which has a flaw, it’s incapable of addressing memory above 1GB (30 bits) which means the driver needs to care for that or else the card doesn’t work. This is not unique to this Broadcom chipset, the BCM4401 10/100 ethernet interfaces which use the bce(4) driver also suffer from the same problem (unable to address memory allocated above 30 bits), the BCM580x ethernet interfaces which use the bge(4) driver suffer from not being able to address more than 40 bits. Going back to the wireless chipset, the bwi(4) driver which is used in the BSDs, originated from DragonFly BSD. This driver was put together by Sepherosa Ziehau using the documentation from a reversing effort in the Linux community. The bwi driver was then imported in to Free/Open/NetBSD and was eventually removed from DragonFly BSD. A new wireless subsystem was introduced in DragonFly which required change to drivers to work again and the bwi driver was never adapted. It now lives on in the other BSDs.

The version of bwi(4) driver came to NetBSD from OpenBSD, ported by Taylor R. Campbell back in 2009. At the time neither version of drivers could handle the 30 bit bug so you either ran with less than 1GB of RAM or used another card. In 2014 Stefan Sperling committed a workaround for this in OpenBSD. I wanted this fix in NetBSD so my wifi could also work & asked the NetBSD developers if such a change was appropriate in NetBSD. I was introduced to bus_dma(9) and the bus_dmatag_subregion() function, the bce(4) driver was my reference on how to use the function. Looked fairly straight forward, a single call this function and off you go, wasn’t too sure how it would fit into the bwi driver but I thought I’d have a go.

This was one of the things I was hoping to work on during my trip but It turned out to be the only thing I attempt. I happened to meet Stefan at 33c3 and we discussed the driver, the work around and the mighty days of the past when Damien Bergamini was hacking on the OpenBSD WiFi stack. In the OpenBSD driver Stefan had opted to deal with the issue of allocating memory in a specific region directly in the driver rather than adding a new interface to the kernel for  such a task so with a bit of thought about the past and a review of the driver, I was given a diff of the changes and suggestions about where I could start making changes.

I still don’t know yet if it’s possible to lift the changes from OpenBSD and apply them to the NetBSD version of the driver, because the DMA framework is different between the systems.
Partially implementing the change Stefan made without all the bounce buffers he’d added in the OpenBSD driver didn’t work and using the bus_dmatag_subregion() function didn’t work either. I pursued the bus_dmatag_subregion() path during 33c3 and didn’t get anywhere. At this point I started looking deeper in the system by looking at the implementation. It was at this point that I discovered this function was defined to EOPNOTSUPP on PowerPC based systems. No matter what I had tried with this function it was a waste of time^W^W^Wvaluable learning experience about keeping documentation up to date & consistent.

At this point I started looking into adding support for tagged subregions so I could make use of the function. The implementation is fairly simple, a public function for a developer to use which performs various tests and a private function which is called to deal with the memory allocation. Unfortunately there were some missing members from the data structure on the powerpc side of NetBSD which needed further investigation and I stopped there for the time being.

For the trip I relied on a tiny Realtek RTL8188CUS based wifi adapter to get me network access. The card worked on the 802.1x enabled SSID at 33c3 using wpa_supplicant(8) on NetBSD/maccppc.

urtwn0 at uhub4 port 5
urtwn0: Planex Communications Inc. GW-USNANO2, rev 2.00/2.00, addr 2
urtwn0: MAC/BB RTL8188CUS, RF 6052 1T1R, address 00:22:cf:xx:xx:xx
urtwn0: 1 rx pipe, 2 tx pipes
urtwn0: 11b rates: 1Mbps 2Mbps 5.5Mbps 11Mbps
urtwn0: 11g rates: 1Mbps 2Mbps 5.5Mbps 11Mbps 6Mbps 9Mbps 12Mbps 18Mbps 24Mbps 36Mbps 48Mbps 54Mbps

The driver for this card is now enabled by default in the GENERIC config file for NetBSD/macppc along with a group of other drivers for USB peripherals.

Thanks to Stefan for his help and advice with the bwi driver and Alex for the chrooted browser packages! 🙂

Running FreeBSD / OpenBSD / NetBSD as a virtualised guest on

I’ve been running a mixture of FreeBSD / OpenBSD & NetBSD as guests on a dedicated server at While getting the operating systems installed was fairly seamless, getting networking going was not.

  1. Client are not isolated in a layer 2 domain
  2. DHCPv6 config is broken

Clients not being isolated is not so much a problem itself and is typically what you’d expect if you plugged a bunch of computers into a switch with a single VLAN or unmanaged switched for example; but in a shared environment with untrusted tenants it can cause problems. Broadcast & IPv6 multicast floods aside, one is open to most of the attacks in something like THC-IPv6 due to lack of MLD snooping which would prevent a rogue IPv6 router.

Attacks via IPv6 are not so much of a problem as their use of non-RFC complaint timers settings in their DHCPv6 make it unfeasible to use the offered native IPv6 connectivity as clients will fail to renew leases. Depending on the DHCPv6 client used, the amount of time it takes fail to renew a lease will vary. dhcpcd for example now warns if detects a lease is not compliant with RFC 3315 section 22.4 “Identity Association for Non-temporary Addresses Option”.

Despite having a vast address range in IPv6 and a /48 subnet is allotted free of charge, you’ll need the equal amount of v4 address addresses as the v6 addresses you intend to use at There is a way of using a /48 and allocating addresses yourself but it’s only possible using a version of Proxmox which they provide.

You can save yourself a lot of hassle both with configuration & trying to deal with their support  regarding IPv6 by using a Hurricane Electric tunnel. I actually found connectivity was also faster from Hurricane Electric than using the native connectivity.

For IPv4 connectivity on a guest (assuming you’re renting individual IP addresses & not a /27 prefix), you’ll need to use the default gateway IP address assigned to your host alongside the allotted IP address and a /32 prefix.

Assuming the network details are as follows
Default gateway on host:
Failover IP #1:, assigned to MAC address 00:50:56:00:01:AA
Failover IP #2:, assigned to MAC address 00:50:56:00:02:BB
Failover IP #3:, assigned to MAC address 00:50:56:00:03:CC

The MAC addresses need to be assigned to the tap(4) interface on the host.
If you’re using bhyve and your guest is using the interface tap0, this would be performed using the -s flag to configure the virtual PCI ethernet card, eg -s 1:0,virtio-net,tap0,mac=00:50:56:00:01:AA

It’s then onto configuring each OS to handle a gateway which is in a another subnet for IPv4 connectivity.


In FreeBSD you need to construct a route to reach the default IP address first, before you specify the default IP address, otherwise things will not work. So assuming we’re going to use Failover IP #1, your configuration in /etc/rc.conf would be as follows

static_routes="gateway default"
route_gateway="-host $gateway_ip -interface $gateway_if"
route_default="default $gateway_ip"

Note, the installer at present prevents network installs, you should use a iso image containing the distfiles, bug 206355 has more details.


On NetBSD, configure networking using /etc/netstart.local, entering the commands you’d enter at the console inside the file. Assuming failover IP #2 is going to be used for the NetBSD VM, the following would configure the guest to reach the outside world using, as discussed in the NetBSD Network FAQ

ifconfig vioif0
route add -net -link -cloning -iface vioif0
route add default -ifa


On OpenBSD, configure the networking from the ethernet interfaces configuration file hostname.if(5).

Assuming failover IP #3 is going to be used for the OpenBSD VM, the following will setup networking.


inet NONE
!/sbin/route add -net -netmask -link -cloning -iface vio0
!/sbin/route add default -ifa

It’s also possible to not specify the -cloning flag but a patch is required if you’re running 5.9 release.

Hipster keyboard layout on NetBSD

Each of the major BSD’s have a different way of handling keyboard layouts on the console & X11. On OpenBSD X11 inherits the setting from wscons by default, on FreeBSD the console keyboard config is separate to the X11 config & depending on if you go down the hald route or not, you may find yourself writing XML to configure your keyboard. For NetBSD which I’ll cover here, wscons configuration is again separate from X11 configuration but everything is configured as per usual via the xorg.conf keyboard layout.

The snippet below is from xorg.conf which sets the keyboard model as a ThinkPad T60 (it should apply to X60 series apart from issues with media buttons), US Dvorak layout with the crtl & caps locks switched.
Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Keyboard0"
Driver "kbd"
Option "XkbRules" "xorg"
Option "XkbModel" "thinkpad60"
Option "XkbLayout" "us"
Option "XkbVariant" "dvorak"
Option "XkbOptions" "ctrl:nocaps"

I didn’t know about the ctrl:nocaps option and I happen to stumble across it in the X section of the NetBSD guide.

To apply the same layout to the console, edit /etc/wscons.conf and set encoding to us.dvorak.swapctrlcaps followed /etc/rc.d/wscons restart.

Not sure how hipster this all is, managed to get sidetracked into NetBSD desktop config as I was working on updating a package in pkgsrc and remembered the tweet above. Seems like a common thing in the emacs world.

USB & Firewire support for NetBSD/cobalt 4.0

The GENERIC kernel for NetBSD/cobalt 4.0 does not support USB or Firewire out of the box, I’ve created a set of patches (sourced from various threads on port-cobalt@) to add support.
You can grab the patches here
Once you have built & installed your new kernel, you will need to make a new MAKEDEV script.
cd /usr/src/etc

& place the new copy of the script in /dev
then generate the device files for the newly supported devices by running
sh MAKEDEV usbs
I’ve successfully used 5 rs232 > USB on my Qube2 via a PCI ALi chipset USB & Firewire card on NetBSD 4.0.
ohci0 at pci0 dev 10 function 0: Acer Labs M5237 USB 1.1 Host Controller (rev. 0x03)
ohci0: interrupting at irq 9
ohci0: OHCI version 1.0, legacy support
usb0 at ohci0: USB revision 1.0
uhub0 at usb0
uhub0: Acer Labs OHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
uhub0: 2 ports with 2 removable, self powered
ohci1 at pci0 dev 10 function 1: Acer Labs M5237 USB 1.1 Host Controller (rev. 0x03)
ohci1: interrupting at irq 9
ohci1: OHCI version 1.0, legacy support
usb1 at ohci1: USB revision 1.0
uhub1 at usb1
uhub1: Acer Labs OHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
uhub1: 2 ports with 2 removable, self powered
ohci2 at pci0 dev 10 function 2: Acer Labs M5237 USB 1.1 Host Controller (rev. 0x03)
ohci2: interrupting at irq 9
ohci2: OHCI version 1.0, legacy support
usb2 at ohci2: USB revision 1.0
uhub2 at usb2
uhub2: Acer Labs OHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 1.00/1.00, addr 1
uhub2: 2 ports with 2 removable, self powered
ehci0 at pci0 dev 10 function 3: Acer Labs M5239 USB 2.0 Host Controller (rev. 0x01)
ehci0: interrupting at irq 9
ehci0: BIOS has given up ownership
ehci0: EHCI version 1.0
ehci0: companion controllers, 2 ports each: ohci0 ohci1 ohci2
usb3 at ehci0: USB revision 2.0
uhub3 at usb3
uhub3: Acer Labs EHCI root hub, class 9/0, rev 2.00/1.00, addr 1
uhub3: 6 ports with 6 removable, self powered
fwohci0 at pci0 dev 10 function 4: Acer Labs product 0x5253 (rev. 0x00)
fwohci0: interrupting at irq 9
fwohci0: OHCI version 1.10 (ROM=1)
fwohci0: No. of Isochronous channels is 4.
fwohci0: EUI64 00:90:e6:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx
fwohci0: Phy 1394a available S400, 2 ports.
fwohci0: Link S400, max_rec 2048 bytes.
ieee1394if0 at fwohci0: IEEE1394 bus
fwip0 at ieee1394if0: IP over IEEE1394
fwohci0: Initiate bus reset

uplcom0 at uhub4 port 1
uplcom0: Prolific Technology Inc. USB-Serial Controller, rev 1.10/3.00, addr 3
ucom0 at uplcom0
uplcom1 at uhub4 port 2
uplcom1: Prolific Technology Inc. USB-Serial Controller, rev 1.10/3.00, addr 4
ucom1 at uplcom1
uplcom2 at uhub4 port 3
uplcom2: Prolific Technology Inc. USB-Serial Controller, rev 1.10/3.00, addr 5
ucom2 at uplcom2
uplcom3 at uhub4 port 4
uplcom3: Prolific Technology Inc. USB-Serial Controller, rev 1.10/3.00, addr 6
ucom3 at uplcom3
uplcom4 at uhub0 port 2
uplcom4: Prolific Technology Inc. USB-Serial Controller, rev 1.10/3.00, addr 7
ucom4 at uplcom4

Dell PowerEdge T105 & *BSD

Dell where running a special offer this week on the PowerEdge T105 servers.
For £173inc Vat & Shipping they make perfect test boxes, I placed the order on monday & they where here on thursday.
I’ve spent some of today trying ou the AMD64 flavours of FreeBSD 6.3 & 7.0-RC1, NetBSD 4.0 & 200802010002Z snapshot, OpenBSD 4.2 RELEASE & CURRENT.
One word of warning the onboard broadcom network card is a POS, you will need an additional network card installed in the system if you’re planning to have any means of connectivity to you box.
I used a cheapo intel pro/1000 GT PCI network card.

Here are some dmesgs:
FreeBSD 7.0-RC1 AMD64
The broadcom network card was enabled in the bios but wasn’t detected by the kernel

I was unable to NetBSD 4.0 & 200802010002Z as the setup program claimed there where any disks installed.

The broadcom network worked fine during the install process as far as I was able to obtain a IP address from a DHCP server, upon reboot when the system went multiuser & the network card was initialised the system would panic, using the intel card instead stopped the panic onboot, but still panicked on reboot, disabling the broadcom network card in the bios solved any panics. Screenshot
I was unable to test the 4.2-CURRENT GENERIC.MP kernel as the system failed to boot, complaining about em0: watchdog timeout -- resetting
wd0a: device timeout writing fsbn 1885728 of 1885728-1885759 (wd0 bn 1885791; cn 11 tn 98 sn 12), retrying Screenshot

I also booted the system off the FreeBSD-CURRENT snapshot using the bootonly iso, the broadcom network card was detected but panicked when attempting to obtain a IP address via DHCP.

Cisco Aironet 350

I normally wouldn’t say this about a Cisco product, but WOW, the 100mW transmit power on the arials means I can get coverage everywhere in my house with this card plugged into my workpad, I struggle with most spots on my Axim, PowerBook or ThinkPad with a Orinocco plugged in.
The only problem I’ve ran into so far is a bug in NetBSD 3.0 (& OpenBSD 3.9 aswell aparently). It seems that once you upgrade to the recent versions of the firmware for this card (5.60 series), the AN(4) driver fails to attach & complains about the record buffer being too small
an0 at pcmcia0 function 0: <cisco Systems, 350 Series Wireless LAN Adapter>
pcic0: port 0x15000440-0x1500047f
ISA IRQ 3 -> vrgiu0 port 9, level high through
pcmcia0: card irq 3
an0: record buffer is too small, rid=ff00, size=198, len=258
an0: read caps failed
an0: failed to attach controller
an0 detached

Once I downgraded to version 5.41 the problem went away!! 🙂

an0 at pcmcia0 function 0: <cisco Systems, 350 Series Wireless LAN Adapter>
pcic0: port 0x15000440-0x1500047f
ISA IRQ 3 -> vrgiu0 port 9, level high through
pcmcia0: card irq 3
an0: Cisco Systems 350 Series (firmware 5.41)
an0: 802.11 address: 00:0f:90:xx:xx:xx, channel: 1-13
an0: 11b rates: 1Mbps 2Mbps 5.5Mbps 11Mbps

Checking the NetBSD gnats database I found a PR which has a fix attached though I haven’t had a chance to try it out yet.

There is a patch for OpenBSD here which I presume is included in 4.0